Why America’s Minority Doctor Problem Begins in the Third Grade

Written By Sydney Lupkin. Originally published by VICE news on March 16, 2016.

Ashley White-Stern was pouring over a gastroenterology textbook one night when she came across a passage that made her bristle: “In the United States, H. pylori infection is associated with poverty, household crowding, limited education, African American or Mexican American ethnicity, residence in areas with poor sanitation, and birth outside the United States.”

White-Stern, a medical student at Columbia University who is black, says that while she didn’t think the passage was overtly racist, she did think it had the potential to imbue medical students with a subtle bias about blacks and Mexican Americans. So she decided to email the authors of the textbook.

“If we didn’t live in a country or world where being of color predisposed society to look down on a person, the published sentence [would] not raise an eyebrow,” White-Stern wrote in her email to the authors. “My humble belief is that we owe it to people of color to consider how and when we include their identities in lists of ‘undesirable’ characteristics.”

Within 24 hours, the authors called White-Stern, thanked her, and asked her to help them change the passage. The next version of the book will explain each association in a little bit more detail and add that higher rates of infection among black and Mexican Americans are not completely understood.

“Unless you have a diverse [medical school] class, you can’t have that discussion,” White-Stern said.

Today, student groups across the United States are calling attention to the lack of diversity on medical campuses, pushing administrators to recruit and enroll more minority students to help end racial health disparities that have persisted for decades. But creating a more diverse class of doctors-to-be is no easy task; while there has been progress made over the last several decades, there still aren’t enough minority medical school applicants.

“The pipeline itself is just too small,” said Marc Nivet, chief diversity officer of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). “The barriers exist up and down the continuum to our segregated education system…. Too many of our minority students are in poor-performing or underperforming K-12 school systems.”


According to the latest data from the US Census Bureau, 62.1 percent of the US population is white, 17.4 percent is Hispanic, 13.2 percent is black, and 5.4 percent is Asian. Meanwhile, 60.1 percent of students entering med school between the 2013-14 academic year and the 2015-16 academic year have been white, 22 percent Asian, 9.8 percent Hispanic, and 7.5 percent black, according to the latest data from AAMC, which runs the MCAT, the standardized test that aspiring physicians (MDs and DOs) must take to get into med school.

Studies have repeatedly shown that this mismatch between the racial breakdown of the population and that of doctors causes problems, even if the biases aren’t explicit. For instance, a 2012 study of primary care physicians in urban areas published in the American Journal of Public Health revealed that increases in “implicit racial bias and stereotyping of patient compliance” was linked to negative experiences for black patients and positive ones for white patients. A 2015 study found that black lupus patients were more likely to perceive racial bias and suffer as a result of it. And in 2008, the American Medical Association issued an apology for a century of racial discrimination in the organization’s past.

Related: Scientists Find Cancer’s ‘Achilles Heel’ — Which the Body Could Be Trained to Attack

White Coats for Black Lives, an offshoot of the Black Lives Matter movement comprised mostly of medical students, has attempted to draw attention to racial injustices in medicine since its first “die in” protest in late 2014. The group has called for an acknowledgment of racism’s role in creating health disparities, including the ongoing segregation of healthcare based on insurance status, which they called “colorblind” racial discrimination in an editorial published last fall in the Journal of Urban Health.

A crucial step toward equality in health care is raising the number of minority doctors, medical students, and medical professionals in leadership positions, they say. But fewer black students applied to and enrolled in medical school in 2014 than in 1978, according to AAMC. The group’s report, entitled “Altering the Course: Black Males in Medicine,” says the problem goes all the way back to grade school math and science courses often offered to black students.

A look at the data suggests the largest proportion of would-be minority physicians are effectively eliminated long before it’s time to apply to medical school.

  • 56 percent of black high school graduates enrolled in college in the year after graduation, compared with 70 percent of whites, according to 2008 data from the College Board.
  • Of the 1.6 million students who received bachelor’s degrees in 2010, nine percent were black and 77.5 percent were white, according to the latest data from the US Department of Education. According to 2010 US census data, black people made up 14.4 percent of the population of 20- to 24-year-olds; white people made up 67.3 percent of the same age group.
  • The same year, 3,475 black students applied to medical school, making up 8.1 percent of all applicants, according to data from AAMC; there were 46,410 white applicants, accounting for 61.8 percent of the total applicant population.
  • Again in 2010, of the 165,000 black students who received bachelor’s degrees, 2.1 percent went on to apply to medical school. By comparison, 2.3 percent of the 1.2 million white students who received bachelor’s degrees that year applied.

In other words, by the time students receive undergraduate degrees, blacks and whites are on nearly equal footing. The disparity develops earlier.

In fact, minority students start to fall behind on their standardized test scores as soon as third grade, and the gap widens over time, Nivet said. To make matters worse, 17 states don’t require students to pass Algebra II to graduate from high school, meaning public school students aren’t pushed to take that class or the math and science classes that would follow.

“We don’t have enough minority students taking the right classes early on and becoming successful in those classes early on to make successful applicants to any health professional school,” Nivet said.

Dr. Damon Tweedy, author of the memoir Black Man in a White Coat, said that he credits a teacher for pushing him to apply to a magnet program before he started high school. He got in, and was bused from the school in his predominantly working-class black community to a school in a mostly white neighborhood.

If current medical student Dennis Dacarett-Galeano had finished grade school where he started it, he said he probably wouldn’t be on his way to becoming a doctor at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in Manhattan.

Dacarett-Galeano, who identifies himself as Latino, said most of his elementary school in Austin, Texas’s effectively segregated education system was considered economically disadvantaged. At the school, white students are the minority, making up 11 percent of the student body.

But thanks to a move to the suburbs and some luck, Dacarett-Galeano was able to attend the wealthiest public high school in the region, which was predominantly white. He had access to the Advanced Placement classes he needed to get into Columbia University, but he said not all of his underrepresented minority Columbia classmates had the same educational privileges — and it showed.

“When I really started to notice the difference between underrepresented minority experiences and otherwise was when I was in a college biology class there,” he said, explaining that biology is considered a “weed-out” class for pre-med students. “Most of my friends who were pre-med who dropped that track were underrepresented minorities or students from disadvantaged backgrounds.”

More could be done to encourage minority undergraduate students to consider medical school, Nivet and Tweedy said.

For minority students, secondary barriers to getting into medical school continue into their undergraduate careers, which are often at historically minority-heavy schools that do not have a full time medical school advisor to guide pre-med students through their coursework and the medical school application process, Nivet said. Such advisors are commonplace at Ivy League and other elite institutions.

Advice from advisers can range from telling pre-med students not to take organic chemistry and physics the same semester to telling them what’s an acceptable MCAT score. Nivet said he occasionally hears about less-informed advisors who have discouraged minority students from applying to medical school based on their MCAT scores, not knowing that those MCAT scores that would be competitive at most medical schools.

Tweedy said that schools lacking diversity may also be more passive about their recruitment methods. For instance, they don’t go to historically black undergraduate institutions to tell students about scholarship opportunities and fee waivers.

“Medical school is an incredible burden,” said Tweedy, who is a psychiatry professor at Duke University Medical Center. “That alone, the time it takes and the cost itself, may deter people from otherwise even considering it. That’s where someone like a recruiter could talk about various options for financial aid, invite students to at least apply and waive the application fees. All these things make it more accessible.”


Racial disparities continue throughout the application process. From 2013-14 through 2015-16, acceptance rates were lower for black students compared with other racial groups, according to MCAT and GPA data from AAMC.

Although 45.2 percent of white applicants got accepted into medical school — as well as 44.3 percent of hispanic applicants and 42.1 percent of Asian applicants — only 36.2 percent of black applicants were accepted.

Part of this may be tied to the fact that black students tend to score lower on the MCAT. Of the 2,460 students who earned the lowest scores on the test from 2013-14 through 2015-16, 43 percent were black. Of the 221 top-scoring medical school applicants over the same period, 11 percent were black.


For some minority students accepted to medical school, shaking the “false narrative” in their own minds that they don’t deserve to be there can be difficult, Nivet said. When Tweedy was a first-year medical student at Duke University in the 1990s, his professor mistook him for a handyman, Tweedy wrote in his book. He recalled feeling insecure about whether he was inferior to his classmates at the beginning of medical school once he learned that his MCAT score was “a few points below the class average” and that his classmates had come from Ivy League schools and other prestigious undergraduate institutions. He wrote that he knew his full scholarship to Duke’s medical school was the result of affirmative action, but wondered whether he was about to become an “academic casualty.”

Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine in New Jersey has a series of pipeline programs to recruit a diverse class of medical students early, but some students — not just minorities — have test scores or GPAs that indicate they may have trouble later on in their medical education, says Thomas Cavalieri, DO, the school’s dean. As a result, the school has a boot camp–like program that starts before the official school year begins to get these students up to speed. It also has a number of interventions to help struggling students throughout their medical education.

Related: Antibiotic Resistance Is a Public Health Nightmare — And It’s Not Going to Stop

Nivet said it’s especially important for minority students to remember that being near or below the average MCAT score isn’t a big deal — and that they’re hardly the only ones in the bottom half of their class.

“A whole bunch of white kids have lower MCAT scores,” he said. “Duke University is not ‘taking a chance’ on any kid…. Students who go to these elite institutions graduate and have become leaders across this country in medicine.”

https://public.tableau.com/views/Number_of_Black_Students_Per_School_2015/Dashboard2?:embed=y&:toolbar=no&:display_count=no&:showVizHome=no#1https://public.tableau.com/views/Number_of_Black_Students_Per_School_2015/Dashboard1?:embed=y&:toolbar=no&:display_count=no&:showVizHome=no#1https://public.tableau.com/views/Number_of_Black_Students_Per_School_2015/Dashboard3?:embed=y&:toolbar=no&:display_count=no&:showVizHome=no#1https://public.tableau.com/views/Number_of_Black_Students_Per_School_2015/Dashboard4?:embed=y&:toolbar=no&:display_count=no&:showVizHome=no#1https://public.tableau.com/views/Number_of_Black_Students_Per_School_2015/Dashboard5?:embed=y&:toolbar=no&:display_count=no&:showVizHome=no#1https://public.tableau.com/views/Number_of_Black_Students_Per_School_2015/Dashboard6?:embed=y&:toolbar=no&:display_count=no&:showVizHome=no#1Follow Sydney Lupkin on Twitter: @slupkin

TOPICS: health, medical school, doctors, racial health disparities, medical school applicants, white coats for black lives, united states, americas, medical school application, damon tweedy


I grew up in Africa. Don’t be sorry for me

I grew up in Africa. Don’t be sorry for me by Naofal Ali in Medium

To understand this article, two precisions are needed. I was born and have grown up in Benin (a west African Country), and I’m presently living in Paris.

A simple fact makes me write this post. Each time my European colleagues and friends ask me about my life course, I naturally answer them i’m from Benin. It’s my birth country and the place I have grown up in. Then, something incredible always follows: I read pity in their faces.

At that moment, their facial expressions silently shout at me “Oh the poor little guy. How sad and traumatic his childhood should have been”. People feel sorry for me, sorry I was born and have been raised in an African country.

Dear people, henceforth, do not be sorry for me anymore. I’m okay! Actually i’m even fine, and growing up in Africa is still the best thing ever in my life. I’m going to tell you why, with the hope it will make your vision less naive.

“In countries like Africa”

For your information Africa is not a country. It’s a 54 countries continent and each has its own realities. Are North Korea and South Korea the same ? Colombia and Brazil ? France and Italy? You know they are not. So when the will you understand the same goes for us ?!

“The war zone”

Even if all you heard about Africa is CNN sad news and safaris, be smarter than that. There are not conflicts all over the continent ! Of course we have our own issues, but who hasn’t ? You got FARCs in South America, Ukraine issues in Europe, and Palestine in Asia. You see ? Problems are everywhere, not only in Africa.

“Poor people”

I know it can sound weird but the notion of poverty is a way more complex than you actually think. According to you, is someone with an annual wage of 10 000 euros a year poor ? I guess yes. Actually, with that ‘’low wage’’ in Benin you can live four times better than with the quadruple in Paris. Your house will be better, your food will be better, you’ll have more people to count on, your job and your life will be less stressful, and as bonus you’ll get a tropical wheather 7 days a week. Don’t just make currencies’ calculations, it just distorts reality. As far as your means allow you to live in comfort where you are, you are not poor, and many of Africans are in the case.

‘’No social life’’

In Africa, family and friendship mean so much to us. No matter the situation you are dealing with, someone always got your back. Our grandparents don’t live in rest houses, our mothers don’t feel concern in who will keep their babies because all their relatives want to. We have the lowest suicide rate in the world, and it shows how much we appreciate life. We do not wait for Facebook to have hundreds of friends, we do not wait for Blablacar to share cars. We do not wait for Airbnb to welcome people in our houses for free. We do not wait for “vizeat” to share our home-cooked meals. In fact, your social revolution is our everyday life. Sharing is not a new business trend in Africa. We got it in our DNA. Values, help, friendship, sharing, and sense of family. That’s what social life is made of in Africa. Not only of stupid images you watch on TV.

‘’No technolgy’’

I confess we have no high speed internet, many electricity issues, no subway, no high speed trains, only few malls, and sometimes, it really turns out to be problematic. But take a step back, and look around you. See the life that we’re living these years in western countries. Parents are afraid of GMO’s in their babies’ food, citizens are afraid of terrorism threats, people are being watched permanently by governments, banks are playing dirty with workers savings, Isis is turning vulnerable teenagers in radical islamists on the internet. So, maybe Western countries have opportunities that we don’t. But the same goes for their problems.

Once again dear non-African reader, don’t be sorry for me. Growing up in Africa is the best thing life ever gave me. Just raise your eyes. The world is larger, and more complex than you might think.

Hi, I’m Naofal. I’ve grown up in Benin and I’m fine.
Nice to meet you.

Dr. Tina: I loved this article so much, I am inspired to write my own article titled “I grew up in Cameroon, please don’t feel sorry for me”.

Someone Tell France: We know what you did

#SomeoneTellFrance: We Know What You Did by Kathleen Ndongmo on Medium

FCFA Member countries

My father had good reason not to stand the French and anything to do with France. From as young as age 12, he made sure he detailed the diabolical deeds and atrocities that France committed on us as a people. How she not only wiped out thousands of indigenous people but also successfully chained our nation to a lifetime of slavery and economic bondage.

I remember the first time a very young me went for a French transit visa in Yaounde. I found the visa officer particularly hostile. For no apparent reason, she persistently bullied me with inconsequential and condescending questions. At some point, she asked rather haughtily:

“Why do you want to go to France?’’

Without blinking, I shot back:

“I am going through France because I am obliged to. My parents have paid taxes to the French government since 1960!”

The second line was probably not necessary. But I was young, passionate, irritated and at that point, flat-out angry. My mind reeled.“Is it because of a common transit visa that someone will reduce me to nothing this early in the morning?” I couldn’t have cared less if the visa was issued or not. But it was issued. Don’t ask me why.

That was 16 years ago.

I am much older, wiser, and angrier. Allow me to break down the reason for my anger in the following graphic, which hopefully should ruin your day:

A lot has been written about how France loots its former colonies, but you have to admit that seeing the figures in real time and putting them into perspective is quite staggering.

  • According to German publication Deutsche Wirtschafts Nachrichten, France’s former colonies must put $418 billion (400 Billion Euros) into the French treasury every single year! This economic slavery is important for the development of the French economy.
  • If the FCFA zone has an estimated 147.5 million people (as at 2013), that means each person in the zone is paying an annual colonial tax of $2824 — almost $3000 — to the French government. One can no longer be left wondering why citizens of these countries pay some of the highest amounts in taxes on the planet. Now, consider that only those in the working age (15–59) actually pay in sweat, that amount doubles. The babies and elderly pay indirectly (poor healthcare and nutrition, lack of education and social services, roads that kill, etc …) — basically — the ripple effects of economic bondage.
  • Here is the kicker: The combined GDP of the FCFA countries stood at $166 billion in 2012. Basically, France is “eating” 2.5 times more than its former colonies annually — all of this from our sweat and blood.

Are you weeping yet?

The imperialist defenders of “French civilization” have made every effort to keep its brutal colonial rule, economic exploitation and continuous crimes under the radar. But they do not fool most of us. What France did to Guinea and Sékou Touré in 1958 traumatized three generations of African leaders. We are beseeched by imperalism and neo-imperalism by the same colonial master. The subsequent disasters have been felt repeatedly since independence. They are still being felt.

  • On January 13, 1963, an ex French Foreign Legionnaire army sergeant called Etienne Gnassingbe killed Togo’s first elected president. Sylvanus Olympio had just started printing Togo’s own currency three days before. It is reported that Gnassingbe received a bounty of $612 from the local French embassy for the hit man job. He went on to become president.
  • On June 30, 1962, Modibo Keita , the first president of the Republic of Mali, decided to come out of the trap of the French Colonial Pact. On November 19, 1968, like, Olympio, Keita will be the victim of a coup carried out by another ex French Foreign legionnaire, Lieutenant Moussa Traoré who went on to become president.
  • On January 1st, 1966, Jean-Bédel Bokassa, an ex french foreign legionnaire, carried a coup against David Dacko, the first President of the Central African Republic. The greatest mistake Dacko made was asking Bokassa — incidentally his cousin — to reorganise the army. Bokassa went on become president.
  • – On January 3, 1966, Maurice Yaméogo, the first President of the Republic of Upper Volta, now called Burkina Faso, was victim of a coup carried by Aboubacar Sangoulé Lamizana, an ex French legionnaire who fought with french troops in Indonesia and Algeria against these countries independence. Lamizana went on to rule till 1980.
  • and the list goes on… coup after coup after coup… over 16 of them in Francophone Africa alone in the last 50 years at the behest of France.
These are the 22 presidents assassinated by France since 1963. *Read about it here [FRE]*

After what happened to Laurent Gbagbo in 2011, leaders in the FCFA zone are probably terrified of anything contrary to what France says. As ludicrous as that sounds. Part of the Colonial Pact carries ‘defense agreements’ between France and its former colonies allowing France to pre-deploy its troops and keep military facilities locally entirely run by them. No one ever asks why they are stationed, when they will leave or what their intervention entails. For those curious enough to, some excuse is usually found for why they are deployed on the ground. Something along the lines of; to protect economic interest, occupy strategic points or defend an ally among the local politicians. It’s the same sob story from Djibouti all the way to Cote D’Ivoire.

French military stations in Africa as at 2015

Why are international bodies not concerned? Well, the old boys in the club know that France is a “superpower” — albeit — with an Achilles heel. They know that the FCFA issue has been steak with an expiration date since World War II. Imagine it for a second. If France lost access to that $418 billion tomorrow, the EU trade bloc would reel from the effects a thousand times worse than Brexit! They have interests, so they turn a blind eye. France itself has seen this coming. I hear they’ve been scouring the planet trying to make new rich friends. Vietnam and Saudi Arabia have been invited to join the Francophonie party. Whether they would agree to be fooled is another story.

The good news however is this: the FCFA is increasingly becoming a poison pill even for France, costing it great diplomatic prestige. The fact that Germany (via Deutsche Wirtschafts Nachrichten) is beginning to tell the story of France’s scandalous acts in Africa is telling. The Germans are at the receiving end of the backlash of migration of Africans into the EU — and the headache it is giving the Bundesregierung— is only one symptom of the many French colonial relics. Siphoned resources from FCFA countries means no hope for their citizens. It’s a clear catch 22.

Back home, the leaders of these countries may be sitting pretty being puppets on the strings of a colonial master but its young generation is having none of it. Recently, a group of young panafrican activists began advocating against the economic stranglehold that France has on its former colonies through the French Colonial Pact. The movement happened simultaneously in several African cities and in the diaspora led by Senegalese writer and activist Kemi Seba. Similarly, Benin Republic’s NonAu FCFA’’ movement took a protest march to its leaders on Nov 30th 2016.

Front Anti CFA sensitisation and peaceful protest day on January 7, 2017 across cities and in the diaspora

A Franco-Cameroon colloquium focusing on the topic: ‘Cameroon’s perilous path towards independence’ is being planned for June 2017. It has got me wondering; when will France start paying back the loot? Do French people know they are living off the wealth of a part of Africa? Can the descendants of victims of the Cameroon War perpetrated by France jointly sue them for reparations? More importantly, what is it going to take for this state of indentured servitude to end?

We cannot continue to defend France’s grotesque reign of violence and intimidation as ‘Western Civilization’. We should not be mute when France — in nothing but racist rhetoric — celebrates its country’s “colonial endeavor.” We should hit back at Nicolas Sarkozy’s insistence that the “ancient Gauls” are the ancestors of all French people, whatever their origins. We should shut down prime minister François Fillon’s description of a deadly colonization as the simple “sharing of culture.”

#SomeoneTellFrance — #DitesALaFrance:

  • We know what you did. Your colonial crimes, your diabolical legacy and your current continuous theft is not lost on us. You have done everything to hide it, and failed.
  • We will fight you, until you free us completely — whether our leaders remain your puppets or not, whether you continue to stage coups or not.
  • Your Africa-France jamboree holding in Bamako on the 13th and 14th of January is an opportunity for us to tell you: we will no longer pay for the crimes you committed against us.
  • Stop being a leeching neo-imperialist coward. Look at your colonial past and your monstrosity toward human beings in the face and deal with it.

FWP #1: I can’t find a good dog walker!!!


Dog walker ad.png

Okay dog walking is a booming business in the First World apparently some people value it so much they spend a fortune trying to provide care for their dogs. Check out this article about a doctor who quit her job to become a dog sitter. I just wish she could have made the decision a decade sooner so that one of the hundreds of students rejected from the medical school admission service could have had her position and would be contributing to help alleviate the physician shortage in the US.

In contrast, one of the most prominent problems in developing countries is Malaria. Malaria has had a cure for decades but still it affects an estimated 300-600 million people each year. It is the largest killer of children killing one child every 30 seconds, about 3000 children every day.


Over one million people die from malaria each year, mostly children under five years of age, with 90 per cent of malaria cases occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa. In summary, developing countries have 99 problems and a dog walker is not one of them.


So where do we go from here?  Thoughts anyone? Now is not a time to tremble in the face of adversity, it is the time to get your voices heard.

I recognize we are all overworkedover exposed and over stimulated today but if you liked this article, consider liking it and sharing it with a friend, family member, colleague, hater or frenemy!

Share your thoughts below, I can’t wait to hear from YOU!

Never UNDERESTIMATE a Lion; an Indomitable Lion nonetheless


Today  the Cameroonian soccer team shocked the world and Africa in particular by winning the African Cup of Nations 2017. This is the first time in 15 years that Cameroon has won the AFCON. The last time being in 2002 with the likes of Patrick Mboma and Samuel Eto’o Fils. 


The most surprising thing to recognize about this team is, they are not the lead team for Cameroon rather they are a substitute team who were asked to play when most of the lead players for Cameroon refused to come represent their country. They shocked the African public by qualifying for the semi-finals and then proceeded to give the Ghanaian Black Stars a thrashing during the semi-finals game in a 2-0 win.

Of note, Cameroon has faced  Egypt 3 other times in the Finals of the AFCON but never succeeded in defeating the Pharaohs of Egypt. Cameroon’s lackluster performances in the past 7 AFCON competitions has led most of Africa to believe that the Indomitable Lion was dead but as they say in Cameroon; “Ont ne fait pas les grimaces devant un vieux lion” loosely translated “No gesticulations in front of an old lion”.

The Indomitable Lions of Cameroon roared valiantly and defeated the Pharaohs of Egypt in a 2 – 1  win with goals by Nikolas N’Koulou and Vincent Aboubakar. Aboubakar  scored his 15th goal with the national team and soared Cameroon to victory with arguably the best goal of the tournament. In Cameroon we say “Impossible n’est pas Camerounais” (Nothing is impossible for a Cameroonian) but I like to say “With God nothing is impossible”. Thank you God for blessing Cameroon with a victory after 15 years. This will be the fifth AFCON cup for Cameroon making them second only to Egypt as having won the most cups in the history of the competition (Egypt has seven cups).

Most Cameroonians are celebrating with the Cameroonian anthem for the African Cup of Nations which is a song by the artist Reniss titled “Dans la sauce” which literally means “In the stew”. For Cameroonians today, the Egyptian football team is all part of the stew being served in Yaounde for the victory. Even Egyptians were chanting “l’Egypte est dans la sauce” as they left the stadium.


Image result for reniss dans la sauce pictures

Image result for reniss pictures

It goes without saying that the most underestimated team in the history of Cameroonian football has proved everyone wrong today. I leave you with a lesson I learned a long time ago which is to appreciate the gift of underestimation.


I know we are all overworkedover exposed and over stimulated today but if you liked this article, consider liking it and sharing it with a friend, family member, colleague, hater or frenemy!

Share your thoughts below, I can’t wait to hear from YOU!